Ventilator and it’s uses

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What is a Ventilator and why is it important for Covid-19?

Many government of the world whose country or state is been affected by the Coronavirus crises has ordered thousands of ventilators to help ease the pressure on hospitals. Last week it was serious heat between President Trump and General Motors (GM).

Now for patients with the worst effects of the infection, a ventilator offers the best chance of survival.

This presentation is according to BBC.

What is a ventilator and what does it do?
Simply put, a ventilator takes over the body’s breathing process when disease has caused the lungs to fail. This gives the patient time to fight off the infection and recover.

Various types of medical ventilation can be used.

Graphic showing two common types of medical ventilation
Graphic showing two common types of medical ventilation Presentational white space

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), some 80% of people with Covid-19 – the disease caused by coronavirus – recover without needing hospital treatment.

But one person in six becomes seriously ill and can develop breathing difficulties.

In these severe cases, the virus causes damage to the lungs. The body’s immune system detects this and expands blood vessels so more immune cells enter.

But this can cause fluid to enter the lungs, making it harder to breathe, and causing the body’s oxygen levels to drop.

To alleviate this, a machine ventilator is used to push air, with increased levels of oxygen, into the lungs.

The ventilator also has a humidifier, which modifies adds heat and moisture to the medical air so it matches the patient’s body temperature.

Patients are given medication to relax the respiratory muscles so their breathing can be fully regulated by the machine.

People with milder symptoms may be given ventilation using face-masks, nasal masks or mouthpieces which allow pressurized air or mixtures of gases to be pushed into the lungs.

Hoods, where pressurized oxygen is pumped in via a valve, are also being commonly used to treat Covid-19 patients, partly because they reduce the risk of airborne transmission of the virus from droplets in the breath.

 

CPAP hood
Image by INTERSURGICALCPAP : Oxygen hoods reduce the risk of disease transmission

These are known as “non-invasive” ventilation, as no internal tubes are required.

However, Intensive Care Units (ICUs) would generally put patients suffering acute respiratory distress on mechanical ventilation quickly, to ensure oxygen levels in the body stay normal.

Dr Shondipon Laha, from the Intensive Care Society, told the BBC most patients with Covid-19 would not need a mechanical ventilator and could be treated at home or with supplementary oxygen.

But although there were risks when using ventilators, such as not knowing who would suffer long-term effects, he said, sometimes a ventilator was “the only way of getting oxygen into the patient”.

Another issue, Dr Laha explained, was having enough of the right staff in place to manage all the ventilators expected to be needed.

“A ventilator is a complex beast – it can cause a patient trauma if not set up properly,” he said. “The technical aspects are challenging. People have knowledge on varying types of ventilator in other specialties, but may need support in using them in intensive care if they’re unfamiliar with this”.

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